Psychology

Early diagnosis of cervical cancer

Early diagnosis of cervical cancer


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The liquid-based thin layer technology used in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer allows the cells to spread completely in one layer. In this way, errors during the test are prevented and safer results are obtained.
If positive values ​​are found in the test result?

Halinde If the smear test is positive, there is no need to panic if the condition is seen as abnormal cells or as a cancer onset. Cell abnormalities in the smear test may be caused by a simple inflammation or by chronic irritation, as well as by any drug or hormonal effect. Liquid-based thin film test with abnormal results is very important to emphasize the need to examine this region more closely. Therefore, when such a result is obtained, the test may need to be repeated, interrupted for a while and re-performed after treatment.

Cervical cancer, the most common type of cancer after breast cancer in women aged 15-45 years, is seen in one in every ten women in the world. According to World Health Organization data, eight out of ten women who have reached the age of 50 have the risk of being exposed to the HPV virus, the most common cause of cervical cancer. When it comes to early diagnosis, it is very easy to fight cervical cancer, but when it is delayed, no matter what is done, it cannot go beyond extending life. Therefore, the medical world is looking for the best ways to make an early diagnosis.

The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test, which has been applied for the last 50 years, is a turning point in screening cervical cancer. Especially in developed countries, the widespread use of this screening method has proved to be a significant reduction in mortality from cervical cancer. Thin-Prep, the most advanced smear test method, which was developed in the early 1990s and provides more accurate results, is based on ASM Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Op. Dr. Mete Bostancı and ASM Director of Pathology Specialists Assoc. Dr. Dr. Özlem Yapıcıer and Dr. We met with Saime Sezgin Ramadan.

What are the new developments in Pap Smear screening?

In general, the smear test is a simple early diagnosis method that determines any cellular changes in the cervix that may be the onset of cancer. In addition, it is possible to identify infections or uterine cancers with the help of the test. Since the early 1990s, liquid-based techniques have emerged in the light of studies to eliminate the common sampling errors and sample quality problems in these tests. Liquid based thin film testing is more advantageous than the old method; because this celling system allows the cells to spread completely in a single layer and the cells do not overlap. In this way, errors during the test are prevented and safer results are obtained.

How to take a sample for testing?

Sampling is a very simple process. During the gynecological examination, the spilled cells are collected with the help of a small wooden or plastic spatula or brush. These cell samples are transferred onto the slide in the conventional smear test and into a specially developed liquid medium in the liquid-based film test. The procedures up to this stage, ie the smear acquisition phase, are entirely the responsibility of gynecologists and obstetricians. Preparing and examining the samples is the duty of pathologists and cytologists. As a result, the role of pathologists and cytologists who make reports after diagnosis is sent to the laboratory is very important.
Does the person feel pain when smears are taken?

There is no discomfort during or after the test. When taking the sample for testing, the patient does not feel anything negative except for the standard gynecological examination.

How often should a smear test be performed?

The age of initiation of smear control is a generally accepted standard to be performed once a year from the first year following the onset of sexuality. As women get closer to menopause, the requirement to have a test once a year becomes more important; because the risk of cancer increases. Therefore, it is important to note that the frequency of screenings is not sparse.

Cervical cancer vaccine

Cervical cancer develops in an uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal cells in the cervical wall in response to HPV infection. These abnormal cervical cells come together to form masses called tumors. The cervical cancer vaccines, which are approved by the Ministry of Health and started to be sold in our country, aim to protect women against this type of cancer. Since HPV vaccine is not a live vaccine, it is prepared by genetic technology and can be easily applied to many people and has no known side effects. The vaccine is administered in three doses. The second dose is given two months after the first dose and the third dose is given six months after the first dose. The vaccine provides 70 percent protection. For this reason, it is recommended that the vaccinated people should have their physician controls and risk determination tests done regularly.

High reliability

Dık We had a three-day training on liquid-based thin film testing in London. In this training, we were informed about how different lesions were seen with this method. We compared the comparative studies with the traditional smear test method. The superiority of this method is very important not only for patients but also for us pathologists. It is much easier to evaluate the results before each and the reliability of the results achieved is much higher. ”

Beware of HPV Virus!

HPV is now considered to be the most common cause of cervical cancer, and women who know that this virus has itself often need to be checked. When HPV is placed in the cervix, this is often invisible, but can occur with tests. It is possible to diagnose HPV in the cervical specimen taken with the Thin-Prep technique. Particularly in patients with high-risk HPV, close monitoring and treatment is needed because of the high risk of cancer.



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